Governance and Corruption in the
Pharmaceutical Sector:
Causes and Consequences

Lucas Amin - Transparency International

Lucas Amin is a research consultant, legal investigator and journalist who works on a range of anti-corruption, human rights and environmental issues. In 2017 he conducted research for Transparency International on the policies and technologies that address corruption and governance problems in the public procurement of drugs and medical equipment. He has a BA in Media and Communications from Goldsmiths College, University of London.

Manuel Balán - McGill University

Manuel Balán is an Assistant Professor in Political Science and the Institute for the Study of International Development at McGill University. He received his PhD from the Department of Government at the University of Texas at Austin. His research and teaching focuses on issues of corruption, anti-corruption, democracy, development, media, rule of law, and political parties, with a regional focus in Latin America. His upcoming book explores the causes of corruption scandals in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. He is also co-editing a book on the legacies of the Left Turn in Latin America. He has published in a number of journals in political science. Prof. Balán also holds a Law Degree, and worked in the past for the Anticorruption Office of the Argentinean government, as well as for a number of NGOs doing work on issues of anticorruption, human rights, transparency, and civil rights.


Carl H. Coleman - Seton Hall University

Carl H. Coleman is Professor of Law at Seton Hall Law School, where he is a core faculty member of the Center for Health & Pharmaceutical Law & Policy. He is the lead author of the textbook, The Ethics and Regulation of Research with Human Subjects (2d ed., Carolina Academic Press 2015), as well as numerous articles on health law and policy in leading legal and heath policy journals.  He has served as Bioethics and Law Advisor at the World Health Organization (WHO), and he continues to work closely with WHO on various projects related to ethics and public health.   Before coming to Seton Hall, Professor Coleman was Executive Director of the New York State Task Force on Life and the Law, a nationally-recognized bioethics commission that operates within the New York State Department of Health. He received his J.D., magna cum laude, from Harvard Law School, where he was Supervising Editor of the Harvard Law Review.  Following law school, he served as law clerk to the Hon. James L. Oakes, Chief Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.  

Danny Edwards - Access to Medicines Foundation

Danny Edwards is a Research Programme Manager at the Access to Medicine Foundation and has responsibility for the daily management of the Foundation’s in-house research team. He leads on the development of the Access to Medicine Index and engagement with global health stakeholders. Danny’s background is in global health policy, specifically in intellectual property, research and innovation. He has held various positions providing policy advice to governments, and international non-governmental organisations. He is currently a PhD candidate at Universiteit Utrecht, looking at incentives that shape company behaviour in access to medicine. Danny held a senior position in the UK Civil Service leading on policy development related to public health, intellectual property and the pharmaceutical industry. In this role he represented the United Kingdom at intergovernmental meetings at WIPO, the WHO and the WTO. More recently, Danny worked at the Geneva-based Council on Health Research for Development, developing and implementing programmes aimed at supporting equitable North–South research partnerships, and at building research capacity in low and middle -income countries.


Jillian Clare Kohler - University of Toronto

Jillian Clare Kohler, PhD is a Professor at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, the Dalla Lana School of Public Health and the Munk School of Global Affairs. She is also Director of the WHO Collaborating Centre for Governance, Transparency and Accountability in the Pharmaceutical Sector. Her professional background includes in-house pharmaceutical policy work at Unicef, the World Bank, and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), where she did field work in a range of countries including Brazil, Bulgaria, Haiti, and Romania. Dr. Kohler's research is focused on fair access to essential medicines with a particular focus on good governance and intellectual property rights. She pioneered the methodology on good governance in the pharmaceutical system for the World Bank, which was subsequently adopted by the WHO and has been applied in over 35 countries globally. She is the author of over 100 policy papers, journal articles and book chapters on pharmaceutical policy and is a co-editor of The Power of Pills: Social, Ethical and Legal Issues in Drug Development, Marketing and Pricing Policies (2006) and Access to Medicines as a Human Right: Implications for Pharmaceutical Industry Responsibility (2012). Dr. Kohler is a technical adviser for the Access to Medicines Index and WHO Good Governance for Medicines Programme. She was a Peter and Patricia Gruber Fellowship in Global Justice at Yale University in 2013. She earned her B.A. and an M.A. in Political Science from McGill University and a Ph.D. in Politics from New York University.


Joel Lexchin - York University

Joel Lexchin received his MD from the University of Toronto in 1977 and for the past 29 years has been an emergency physician at the University Health Network. He taught healthy policy in the School of Health Policy and Management at York University from 2001 to 2016 and is now a Professor Emeritus at York. He has been a consultant on pharmaceutical issues for the province of Ontario, various arms of the Canadian federal government, the World Health Organization, the government of New Zealand and the Australian National Prescribing Service. He is a frequent outspoken critic of the pharmaceutical industry and the way that Health Canada regulates drugs. His book Private profits versus public policy: the pharmaceutical industry and the Canadian state was published by University of Toronto Press in September 2016 and his new book Doctors in denial: why big pharma and the Canadian medical profession are too close for comfort was published by Lorimer in May 2017.


Erica Di Ruggiero - University of Toronto

Erica Di Ruggiero is Director for the Office of Global Public Health Education & Training, Director of the Collaborative Specialization in Global Health, and Assistant Professor, Social and Behavioural Health Sciences Division at the Dalla Lana School of Public Health (University of Toronto). Prior to joining the university, she was the inaugural Deputy Scientific Director with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research-Institute of Population and Public Health. She led the design, implementation and evaluation of research, partnership and knowledge translation initiatives to address priorities including health equity, environments and health, global health and population health intervention research. She served on the Management Committee for the Innovating for Maternal and Child Health Program in Africa, as Honorary Vice President, American Public Health Association and chair, Canadian Public Health Association. She has also held adjunct and status faculty appointments at the University of Toronto. Erica obtained her BSc in Nutritional Sciences, a Masters of Health Science (community nutrition) and a PhD in public health sciences from the University of Toronto.  She is a registered dietitian. Her research interests include the study of population health interventions (policies, programs), their health and health equity impacts, global labour policy and policy agenda setting processes that affect health and health equity, the evaluation of global health research capacity building, and of knowledge utilization and exchange strategies to influence public health decision-making at national and global levels.


Trudo Lemmens - University of Toronto

Trudo Lemmens is Professor and Scholl Chair in Health Law and Policy at the Faculty of Law of the University of Toronto, with cross appointments in the Dalla Lana School of Public Health and the Joint Centre for Bioethics. Professor Lemmens obtained a Licentiate in Law from the K.U.Leuven (Belgium) and both a Master of Laws (specialization bioethics) and a Doctor of Civil Law degree from McGill University. He has been a member of the School of Social Science of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton as well as a visiting professor or fellow at various other institutions, including the Universities of Oxford (St. Anne’s College and the HeLEX Center for Health, Law and Emerging Technologies), Torcuato di Tella (Argentina), K.U.Leuven, Otago (New Zealand), and Pontificia Javeriana (Colombia).

His publications include the co-edited volumes Law and Ethics in Biomedical Research: Regulation, Conflict of Interest, and Liability and Regulating Creation: Law, Ethics and Policy of Assisted Human Reproduction, as well as more than 100 chapters and articles in national and international law, policy, science, medicine and bioethics journals. He has testified before Parliamentary Committees (including in the context of the recent Medical Assistance in Dying debate), has been a member of various national and international expert committees, and is currently a member of the Advisory Committee on Health Research of the Pan American Health Organization and of the Board of the Ontario Mental Health Foundation. His research focuses on the complex interaction between law, governance mechanisms, and ethical norms and values in the context of health care, biomedical research, health product development, and--more generally--knowledge production. Professor Lemmens teaches courses on Health Law and Bioethics, Pharmaceutical Governance, Mental Health Law, and Research Ethics.


Timothy Ken Mackey - University of California, San Diego

Tim Ken Mackey is the Director of the Global Health Policy Institute, an Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology and Global Public Health at UC San Diego School of Medicine, and is the Associate Director for the UC San Diego MAS Program in Health Policy & Law. He holds a BA in Political Science-International Relations, a Masters Degree in Health Policy & Law and also earned his PhD in Global Public Health from the joint doctoral program at UC San Diego - San Diego State University. Prof. Mackey's work has been featured in high-impact journals such as ScienceJAMANature Biotechnologythe LancetNature Reviews Clinical OncologyClinical Microbiology Reviews, and BMC Medicine. His research and expertise has also been featured in major news outlets such as CNN, NPR, and POLITICO Pro.  He also serves on several editorial boards and is the current Section Editor for Global Health at BMC Public Health. His work focuses on an array of multidisciplinary topics in domestic and global public health. He also has extensive professional experience including over 10 years experience in the private sector and acting as a consultant for the World Health Organization, the US Department of State, the US Department of Justice and others.

Kathy Moscou - University of Toronto

Kathy Moscou, Ph.D. is a post-doctoral fellow at the WHO Collaborating Centre for Governance, Accountability and Transparency in the Pharmaceutical Sector at the University of Toronto and is an adjunct professor at both York University School of Health Policy and Management and Brandon University Faculty of Education. Over the past decade, Dr. Moscou has conducted health policy research aimed at pharmacovigilance with application to governance and medicines safety. Her Ph.D. dissertation, entitled Pharmacogovernance in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: a case study of Brazil and Kenya, established a new theoretical concept with practical application for the development of best practice guidelines and country-wide strategies to improve post-market drug safety. The pharmacogovernance framework, used to assess governing structures, policy instruments, institutional authority and resource management that enables or hinders post-market drug safety nationally, has been cited by researchers in Brazil and Canada. Examples of research contributions pertaining to governance and the pharmaceutical sector include: Matching Safety to Access: Pharmacogovernance in Kenya (2017); Governance and pharmacovigilance in Brazil: a scoping review (2016); Drug Safety and Corporate Governance (2013) and Pharmacovigilance in Europe and North America: Divergent approaches (2012). Dr. Moscou earned her Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences - Collaborative Program in Global Health from University of Toronto; Master of Public Health in International Health and Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy at the University of Washington. She is a licensed pharmacist in Manitoba and Washington State.